A recent study shows that mothers exposed to moderate to high levels of caffeine during pregnancy may give birth to infants that gain excess weight in early childhood. Plus: How does ART affect risk of stillbirth? Also: A study found that obese African-American women have significantly lower energy expenditure per kilogram of mass compared to obese white women with similar energy intake and physical activity levels.
Pregnancy and Birth
Maternal chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with a 16% increase in risk of preterm birth (PTB), with substantial heterogeneity, according to an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
The fetal fibronectin (fFN) test alone had a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 97.2% in predicting spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in symptomatic twin pregnancies, according to a small pilot study of 40 women.
In 2012, a Virginia woman began receiving prenatal care for her seventh pregnancy, during which she was diagnosed with Type II diabetes and obesity. During the delivery, shoulder dystocia was encountered. The baby's right arm was noted to be limp and she was diagnosed with a brachial plexus injury. The woman sued those involved with the delivery, claiming that during the course of her care, the history, physical examinations, and tests showed she had an increased risk for encountering shoulder dystocia during a vaginal delivery.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the leading contributors to maternal mortality worldwide. This review describes hypertension-related maternal mortality in the United States and key strategies to improve outcomes.
In the United States, 1% to 2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries an approximately 5% risk of transmission from mother to infant. HCV can be transmitted to an infant in utero or during the peripartum period.
Across the United States, nitrous oxide (N2O) is attracting attention as a desired option for analgesia during childbirth.
A number of risk factors have been found for gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (GH-PE), and a new study from Taiwan suggests endometriosis is one of them, and a significant and independent risk factor at that.